Saturday, May 29, 2010

Notes and possible questions for grade 12

Traveling Through the Dark
William Stafford


“Traveling through the Dark” composed by William Stafford presents dual responsibilities of any person has possibility of facing: one self-entered and another community-centered. By the end, he moralizes that one has to make choice between the two, and such choice is also ways self-centered.

It was dark and the poet was traveling along the road by Wilson River. On the way, he saw a dead deer. He thought it would be better if he threw the deer into canyon because the road was very narrow and his returning would cause more deaths. Thinking of throwing, he got down from his car. And he went towards the deer. While the deer. While he dragged for the purpose of throwing, he saw that she was pregnant. This reality forced him to tough the deer’s side. He felt warmth and knew that her fawn was still alive. Consequently, he found difficulty in deciding. He looked towards his vehicles. It was aiming its parking light ahead, its engine was continuously purring. He stood there and tried to hear the sound of his friends coming but he could not. He thought for longer about himself and about his friends. He thought at returning also. But, at last, he pushed the deer into the river.
Model Answers1. Show how the action develops stanza by stanza?
William Stafford’s poem “Traveling though the Dark” presents both physical and mental actions. The first stanza begins with physical action but ends with mental action. Traveling through the dark is physical and thinking of rolling into the canyon is mental. In the second stanza, the speaker stumbles back, goes up to her and drags. All these activities are physical. Hence, second stanza is the description of physical actions. Physical actins of the second stanza continue in the third also. The speaker touches the deer’s side and knows about the presence of offspring inside. This physical action leads to mental action; he hesitates after he knows its condition. Not knowing what to do further, he stands in the glare of red in the third stanza. Here too, like in the second stanza, we find physical actions. The fourth stanza presents both actins like the first one. The speaker thinks of returning, but finds it impractical. So, he pushes the deer into the river.
5. God’s Grandeur G.M.Hopkins

God’s Grandeur by an English poet G.M. Hopkins describes the majestic deeds of God. He claims that God is omnipresent (present everywhere) and omnipotent (the most powerful). The good deeds on earth are also the results of these qualities of God. Thought human beings continuously destroy nature, it is never spent.
The world is full of the greatness of God. Due to His greatness, the world shines like ‘a shook foil’. It gathers to greatness, as it is full of resources. Despite this fact, human beings act adversely. They don’t follow the commands of God; rather they function to destroy the world. Earlier generations destroyed the earth and so is the case with the present generation. They act as if they are not rational creatures. As a result of their deeds, the earth and so is the case with the present generation, they act as if they are not rational creatures. As a result of their deed, the earth has become dry; it has the smell of human beings instead of its natural smell. Indeed the earth has reached to the verge of destruction. Nevertheless, the world is not completely destroyed. Because of the freshness that is inside things. Nature keeps on regenerating. The sun sets in the evening only to reappear in the morning. These all happenings are the results of the god’s protection. He protects the earth just like a bird broods over the eggs.
The poet is of the opinion that human beings acts are always directed towards destruction: knowingly or unknowingly they destroy though human beings destroy, the nature regenerates because of the omnipresent and omnipotent nature of god.
Model Answers
1. What is the central idea of the poem?
G.M. Hopkins’ sonnet “god’s Grandeur” forwards the idea that god is responsible for all the splendid things that happen in earth. Human beings do not use the earth properly. Their activities are always destructive. Because of them, the earth has seared. Bleared and smeared. The earth has lost its natural smell: there is the smell of human beings everywhere. Despite the fact, god is never angry with his creatures. He keeps on providing them with necessary things. Similarly, he provides protection to all the beings just like a bird does to its eggs.
Section : B Story
1.About Love Anton ChekhovAbout the Writer and the TextAnton Chekhov is a Russian dramatist and a short story writer. His short stories deal on the theme of general and upper class in particular. He presents events and situations where the climax shifts towards tragedy. Reader’s expectation to see male and female character enjoying happy ending can’t be found in the end of the story.
‘About Love’ deals on the theme of unexpressed love and its consequences upon both lover and beloved. Unexpressed love causes pain in the both parties. When one is in love one should think of happiness or sadness, goodness or badness; the only thing is to think is one should express love clearly.
Summary“About Love “presents three dimensional love stories. The first love is of Nikanor and Palegeya, second is of Alyohin and a Russian girl, and the third Alyohin and a married women Anna. The Love of Luganovich and Anna is one of the third parts. These three stories are the representatives of the three categories of love.
The first story is an example of violent love story. The main character- Nikanor- was drunkard, and interestingly religious minded. In due course of his stay in Alyolin’s house, he fell in love with Palegeya. He instated that Palageya married him. Sometime he used to beat her in his intoxicated state to prevent herself from her husband. She used to hide under the bed of Alyohin.
Second love-story is the materialistic love. The lady is concerned with the money only. Every time Alyohin held her in his arm, she used to ask for a months allowance.
Third story, which is the main story, is the unexpressed love (one-sided love). It presents a sequence of events in the life of Alyohin and his attraction towards Anna.
According to the story, Alyohin was a student and his father was a farmer. Therefore, his father spent the amount needed for his study at university. Because of it, he felt in debt. To pay debt Alyohin had no options but to return to his farm and labored hard. However, his desire to live civilized life continued and to fulfill it, he stayed up stairs, read a book, and drank liquor but it did not last long. One night a priest came and drank the whole of his liquor. From that day onwards he stared living downstairs and slept on the sledge (small hut).Before he was here, he was appointed as honorary judge in town. During his period, he came in contact with a Luganovich, who surprisingly invited Alyohin for dinner in his home. When they were having dinner, he got an opportunity to see Anna. From the very first sight, he started to like her. He found her beautiful, impressive and elegant. Hence, his first meeting with the lady reminded an unforgettable event. It was spring when he met her. In the summer, he was in his farm, but the memory of the lady remained. He desired very much to meet, but could not meet until autumn. In autumn, he went to the town where he met with Anna. She showed her worry about Alyohin and expressed wonder at his condition. After the show was over, he went to Anna house, talked with her husband, but returned back as usual without confessing his love for her.After it he kept on going to her house in his every visit to his town. At Anna’s house, he was welcomed cordially and regarded as noble fellow. When he met her, she played piano with him, talked for hours, but their mind remained unexpressed. The Luganoviches sometimes requested him not to hesitate in asking for any kind of help. He also did not hesitate in doing so. In return he brought gifts from the village.
Days passed in the same ways; neither had they expressed love. But he started appearing in the behavior of Anna. She behaved in mocking (smiling) way with Alyohin-at his fault she appreciated him. At last Anna had to go to another place for her mental treatment. When it was the time for Anna’s departure, Alyohin entered into the apartment of Anna. There their eyes met which resulted in kissing one another, and expressing their love. However, their reunion did not result into their marriage. Alyohin got down in the next station, and there after they did not meet.
This story has a frame. In the beginning the sky is grey and the trees are drenched. The environment is gloomy. In the end, when the Alyohin unloads his heart about love, the shining sun appears, after the rainfall. Alyohin tells this story in between this frame to his two guests: Burkin and Ivan.
Questions for further practice:
· Write a summary of a story ‘About Love’.
· Describe the violent love affair between two servents:Nikanor and Palageya?
· Sketch the character of: a) Alyohin b) Anna
· What kinds of love experiences are suggested by Alyohin in ‘About Love’?
· Describe Alyolin’s experience about love?
(For further practice go through the textbook questions ‘The Heritage of the Words’- page no. 24)
2. Hurried Trip Avoid a Bad Star M. Lilla and C.Bishop Barry


Hurried trip to avoid a bad star is written by American geographers M. Lilla and C. Bishop Barry. Their essay presents social, economic and educational aspects of karnali region. To present these aspects, they have brought four events in the text- their meeting with a chhetri woman and the people processing silajit, and their encounter cutting down trees and the people of karnali buying and selling things.Summary:The writers and their porters were traveling back to Nepalgunj. The carried baskets filled with medicinal herbs hashish, had-knit sweaters and blankets to sell in Nepalgunj. On their way. They met a Chhetri woman. Who asked them about her husband. She requested them to send him if they saw him. After their short conversation with her. they continued their journey. At the altitude of 9000 feet. They met some people processing silajit. When they asked for the reason of not procession silajit in sinja, they replied that they wanted to avoid a bad star. The writer and the poters journey continued after they talked with these people. They had just reached by a forest when they heard the sound of chopping trees. They saw some women cutting down the branches of tree. The trees were almost bare. As they asked the women about possible consequences. They showed their ignorance. Their journey continued after their talk. At last, they reached to Nepalganj. When they saw people selling and buying cotton clothes, aluminum, ironware, spice, and jewelry. The bazaar was full of the people. The writers got the impression that the life of karnali will be different if they are not liked to Nepalgunj.
Model Answers1. Write a paragraph or two to show how karnali is linked economically with the lowland regions to the south?
Geographically, karnali lies to the northern part of our kingdom. As it is made up of very sloppy hills, there are many problems. People do have transportation and other facilities for their better survival. There is no sufficient cultivable land. So, they have to depend on the lowland regions to the south.
People of karnali cannot sell their products in their localities. To sell their items like medicinal herbs. Hashish, had-knit sweaters and blankets, they have to go to Nepalgunj. Similary, they cannot buy goods in their places. For this purpose also, they have to depend upon lowland regions. People of Karnali have to depend upon lowland region for their jobs also. Being undeveloped part, it does not have factories. To earn livelihood, young people have no better options than leaving their places and working in the lowland region.
3. A Story Dylan Thomas

“A Story” written by an Irish poet and short writer Dylan Thomas presents events from the perspective of a small boy. The boy narrates those happenings which he came across in his childhood. His description is full of humor and satire. The age people are shown as if they are stupid stuff. The writer has created the world of absurd people through a boy’s narration.
Description of the boy’s uncle and his wife.The boy’s uncle was tall, big and red-hairy. He used to occupy every inch of his room. He was just like a buffalo squeezed into an airy cupboard. His voice was hoarse. He used to drop food and drink on his waistcoat. His waistcoat looked like a picnic spot recently left by picnic-goers. Another childish behavior of his was to carry whistle under his neck. Whenever he was happy, he blew whistle his wife however was lean and thin. She did not make noise while walking or working. She was hot-tempered. On every weekend. Her anger used to be very high. As she become angry her husband to lift her and keep on the table. She in turn used to hit him with china cup.
Summary:The boy with his uncle was sitting in their room when the boy’s uncle’s friends came there. Their coming had the aim of deciding date for outing. They said that they had collected fund and liquor for outing. Afterwards the uncle’s friends returned back to their home. The next day they came with the list of names for uncle’s acceptance. He read the whole list and accepted all the names. Then there was his wife with china dog. She threatened him that she would go her mother’s house if he did not cancel the program. In anger she asked him to choose either her or outing. The uncle said that he preferred outing. On Saturday morning the uncle’s wife left house. She had written a note to her husband in which she had asked him to put off shoes before going to bed. At about eight the uncle’s friend came to his house with a charabace. They became ready to go for outing. As they drove off. The women of the village peeped out from windows and boys bid them good-bye. No sooner had they crossed the village then they received they drove for sometime and reached to a public house. The uncle asked the boy to look after they charra whereas they went inside. A little later a man came and asked for the way to pub. The boy took the man there, there inside the pub he saw his uncle and his friends drinking breaking the glasses and talking nonsense. The boy did not remain there he was afraid of the situation. Afterwards the uncle and his friends came out and got into the charra. Then after they reached to a river. Where they all got down and played with water. From that time onwards, they forget the idea of porthcrawl. By the evening they reached to place called Hermit’s nest. There they decided to rest and enjoy drinking. They drank so much rum that they could not control their sense. They later made decision to returned back. On the way home, they rested in a field and sat in a circle. They continued drinking there too.
Model Answers1. The plan was to go to Porthcawl for the outing. Did they ever reach there? Why?
The plan of the narrator’s uncle and his friends was to reach to porthcawl for the outing. But they could not reach to their destiny because of their habit of drinking. But it does not mean that it was the only one cause for it ; there are many.The first cause was their late departure. It was only at eight o’clock they started their outing. Another cause of it was the late arrival of one of their partners. Because everyone was worried about himself, they moved with out counting all heads. But when they knew that one was missing. They could not continue their journey. They returned to receive him. The third and the greatest of the causes as already said is their nature of enjoy drinking a lot. When they reached to mountain sheep. They drank a lot. They did not think of their of their destiny. It was only after the owner informed them of the closing time. They came out though it was already late to reach to porthcawl. No one worried about even after they came out. They thought of playing with water when they reached to river. Hence, they could not reach.
4. The Last Voyage of Ghost Ship Gabrial Garica MarqueazTheme:The last voyage of ghost ship by Gabriel Garcia Marquez a Colombia novelist presents the development of a boy to a young man. The events depicted however are not in chronological order: the writer has used stream of consciousness technique in the presentation of story.Summary:The boy, who is also main character of the story used to go to sea where he had seen a mysterious ship in his childhood. The ship used to appear when there was darkness and vice versa. The ship was bigger than the village and taller than the steeple of the church. But he could not see the ship in the later years. However the boy didn’t stop going to sea. He had determined to show the existence of ship to the villager after he was beaten on charge of being a liar. After many years he saw the same ship by the harbor. He could not believe his eyes. So until next March he waited to see the same ship. No sooner had he seen the ship than he went home to tell about it to his mother. His mother got angry with him; she advised him to get involved in romance with some lady instead of going to sea. The boy’s mother however agreed to go there next march. But unluckily, his mother expired while she was sitting on a chair and thinking about her dead husband. This event made the boy angrier. His determination grew bolder; he wanted to prove the existence of sjip to the villager and went towards that location with a lantern. He didn’t stop anywhere; he went straight towards his destination. As he reached near the place, he saw the ship again. The ship was moving without any sound. His presence there made the ship disappear. Nonetheless, it reappeared after some time. The boy lit the lantern and showed it towards the ship. As he showed the light, a miracle happened the ship started following him. The boy guided the ship towards the village. At last he took the ship there. The ship blasted as it reached there. The villagers came there running and saw the destruction of ninety thousand champagne glasses. The boy watched the villagers gaping their mouth at the ship
5. The Tell – Tale Heart Edgar Allan PoeTheme:Edgar Allan Poe's story The Tell – Tale Heart presents murderous act done by a boy and confessions done later. Poe describe that our heart really can hide the inner reality. Despite desire of secrecy, our heart reveals what there is.
Summary:The narrator claims that he is not mad as he could hear things in the heaven, earth and hell. To justify him saint, he confesses dangerous crime he has committed.
The narrator and the old man used to reside together; they had very good relationship. The boy used to love the man very much. The old man also used to treat him well. The only thing that irritated the boy was the eye of him. To end the consequences, he went to the old man's room continuously for seven days. But returned, as he could not see the eyes of the man. In the morning he spoke politely and behaved as if nothing had happened. On the eighth nights, he as usual went there with torchlight. He did every thing stealthy and cautiously. Despite it, he happened to touch tin fastening, which dropped and disturbed the sleep of the man. In desperation, he asked who it was. The boy remained speechless and motionless. A little later his sense brought him the reason that the old man easy asleep again, he aimed the beam towards the old man's eyes. As he saw them, he grew angry. He then, jumped towards the man, dragged the man and pressed his neck with bed. At last, he dismembered the old man's dead body and put it under the plank. After it, he cleaned the place spotlessly clean. It was already four when he finished the task. At four, the three policemen appeared and rang the bell. The boy went there; welcome them bought to his room and took to every nook and corner of his house. The policemen didn't suspect any wrong there. The boy took them to the spot where he had hidden the corpse of the old man. He cordially asked them to sit on the chair, which he had kept there. He sat there just over the plank whereas policeman continued talking with smiling face. The boy, at the mean time, heard sound coming from beneath. He desired to reduce the loudness of the sound. For this purpose, he spoke louder; though it didn't do any good. He felt the sound growing; he felt the policemen’s smile as the smile of mockery. It became unbearable for him to keep the reality secret. H thought it better to confess than to hide. Eventually he confessed the crime.
6. Hansel and Gretel
Grimm BrothersTheme:Hansel and Gretel by Grimm brothers present a story of a family; which consists of a father, a stepmother and two children. The writers present the psychology of seep mother in very realistic manner. At the same time, he shows that evil force suffers in the end and good force emerges victorious.
Summary:Once there was a famine in a country, which compelled the step mother to think of leaving the children to the forest. The father yielded to the wish of wife, as she was pigheaded. In the morning, the step mother asked them to get ready to go to the forest. Hansel had collected pebbles as he had heard the conversation of parents the earlier night. As they left their home, the boy dropped pebbles on the way. After walking for some duration, they reached to a spot where the step mother asked the children to wait till they return back. But it was only a trick to leave the children in the forest. At midnight, when they got up, the boy thought of returning to house. He could return successfully with the assistance of pebbles he had dropped. At home they were welcomed by the father though the mother was indifferent. There was another famine in the country, which forced the mother to bring the previous idea back again. The father accepted despite his unwillingness. The boy, unlike previous time, was unable to collect pebbles as the mother had locked the door from outside. Early in the morning, the children were waked up and given bread. The boy dropped the bread on the way making it crumbs. Unlike before, the parents took them deep into the forest. The children were left there. They wished that their parents would come which didn’t happen as they had thought. The children couldn’t return back to their house as the breads crumbs had been eaten by birds. They, at last reached to a house made of bread and cakes. As they nibbled from the house, a voice sweetly spoke them to continue. It was a witch, who used to eat children whoever came handy. The witch, on the next day imprisoned the brother and compelled the sister to do laborious deeds. Everyday the witch went there and checked how fat he had become. The boy could deceive her with the help of a bone. As she realized that the lad would never become sedentary, she decided to end the consequence. Early in the morning, she ordered Gretel to fetch water. She had prepared oven to end the brother and sister. As Gretel arrived there, she asked her to be in. Gretel showed ignorance to the way of entering and asked her to demonstrate. No sooner had the witch tried to enter her head then she pushed her into oven and closed it. She then released her brother. They went inside the house and collected treasures. On the way back home, they arrived by a river, which was full of water. The boy asked a duck to help him across the river. As they reached their house after long walk, they saw father who welcomed them happily, but could not find mother as she had died.
7. Gretel
Garrison Keillor
Gretel by Garrison Keillor is an interpretation of the story "Hansel and Gretel" from the perspective of a female. The interpreter is Gretel who denies her cowardice in the original story. She claims that the depiction is distorted one.
Summary:Gretel says that there was an understanding between her and her brother to sell their story to Grimm brothers. They had signed in a contract paper with an agreement to share fifty-fifty of the profit. But unexpectedly, Gretel found the story published the other day totally different order. The story depicts her as coward and her brother as a brave person. She claims the brother was, in reality, a coward not vice versa. It was her brother who wept time and again, and she had to carry him. The portrayal of he father and mother is also distorted. Father was not so kind hearted; he was a drunkard; he liked to watch bull fight. Mother was not cruel in any sense jog the word. Gretel describes their parents leaving them in the forest as a natural phenomenon of the time. Parents used to leave the children in forest hoping that they will be better cared in forest by frog, raven or saints. She claims that she was not worried when she in the forest, as she had known the reality. At last, she repents for killing the witch, for the witch was not after her; she had wanted to kill Hansel.

Part: 3/ Heritage Series- GradeXII
Section :C Essay/ Speech
1. I Have a Dream Martin Luther King.Jr.About the text"I have a dream" is a political speech made by martin Luther king. jr. after the independence of black people. Martin Luther forwards the history of America. the problems faced by black people suggestions to his followers. warning to the government and his wishes. he describe apartheid (discrimination on the basis of color) as the extreme point of human cruelty, and demands for its end.
History:America was the colony of Great Britain before 1776. When it was declared independent, both black and white people had expected for their freedom and happiness. As expected. white people got access over then whereas black people didn't. They were discriminated and pushed to slums. They were not allowed to travel by any vehicle. Indeed, they had to spend the life of great difficulty. This condition created dissatisfaction among the blacks and they wanted to get civil rights. Martin Luther's speech also represents this sentiment. problems faced by black people:
The Blacks, like the whites, had expected that their situation would change after independence of America. But it did not happen. Even after the independence. the hope of black people was not materialized. they got neither freedom nor happiness. "the check " given to black people was not cashed; it was returned back with the mark insufficient fund. so their condition remained the same. they were not allowed to travel by public vehicle; they were not allowed shelter in any motels; indeed they were not given any rights.
Problems faced by black people:The blacks, likes the whites had expected that their situation would change after independence of American. But it did not happen even after the independence. The hope of black people was not Materialized. They got neither freedom nor happiness. "The check" given to black people was not cashed; it was returned black with the mark insufficient fund so their condition remained the same they were not allowed to travel by any public vehicle; they were not allowed shelter in any motels; indeed they were not given any right.
Suggestions to his followers:The present time, according to martin Luther is the time to rise from the path of segregation to the path of racial justice. as it is the demand of time, no one should try to block the revolt of the blacks for their rights. the revolt would continue unless and until the demands are fulfilled. However, the advices that any means of violence should not be applied. He advised his followers to follow the path of non-violence. He further adviced them to use their strength in creative works.
Warning to the government and his wishesHe advice his followers to follow on the path of peace. at the same time, he warns the government that there would not be peace if laws are not practiced accordingly. their moment would shake the foundation of the nation; he wishes for the end of apartheid. he desire for the oasis of freedom in place of bondage. he dreams that the children would not be judged on the basis of their color rather they would be judged on the basis of their intelligence. More over he wishes for the prosperity of both black and white for the prosperity of nation depends on it.
Some of the dreams made by Jr. Martin Luther King in his speech “I HAVE A DREAM”:
1.He had a dream that one day his nation will rise up and live out with the true meaning of its creed holding the equality of all people living in U.S.
2. He had a dream that one day the hills of Georgia the sons of farmer, slaves(Blacks) and the sons of former slave owners (Whites) will be able to sit together at the table of brotherhood.
3. he had a dream that any children of any color will not be judged on the basis of their color of their skin but by their content or the caliber.
4. He had a dream that every individual will get equal voting rights including their citizenship rights equally in every states.
5. He had a dream that none of the Americans will be judged just by staying in the Ghettos or skyscrapers.
6. He had a dream that any state of U.S will be beyond injustice and oppression but will be transformed into a Oasis of freedom and justice.
7. He had dream that all above situations will be favourable and realistic where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and work together as sister and brothers.
2. Women's Business
Illene Kantrov

Theme:Illene Kantrov's essay Women's Business depicts the business activities performed by women. She present her logic that Women's business was related with cosmetic items and the techiniques they appplied for the production of goods by them were traditional. She presents Lydia Pinkham as the precursor of womens's business. Other women entrepreneurs also followed the path she showed. Though they followed her path, they could hardly become as successful as Lydia.
Summary:There was a picture of a lady Lydia Pink ham in a newspaper. Below the picture was an advertisement, which claimed that the company owned by the lady had remedy for a problem of women. The lady, according to the writer, used the techniques of social activism to sell her products. She advised her clients, to consult only female physicians. She suggested the client about diet, exercise and hygiene. Due to the business conduct by her, she could earn huge amount $200000 in the year 1881. Her success in business made her very famous. She became a folk heroine, the subject of popular songs and jokes.Other women followed the path shown by Lydia. Like Lydia, her successors. Arch-rivals were Helena Rubinstein and Elizabeth Arden. They printed their beautiful faces in the magazines to advertise their goods. They allured their customers by marrying European aristocrats. They competed in their business. To show their product of high quality, they used women's sentiments as well as the boldness of gambler. In addition to cosmetics, they opened beauty parlors, sold ready-made clothes, and advised on nutrition. Helena published books on the benefits of eating raw foods; the book became extremely popular. Similarly a black female capitalist also followed the path of Lydia but the technique used by her was quite different. She used sales agents to sell her products. Though the female capitalist followed the path of Lydia, their main aim was to gain personal benefits, in which they could become successful to some extent.
3. The Children Who Wait Marsha TraugotSummary:Marsha Traugot's essay "The children Who Wait" discusses the scene of adoption in American context. There is a dramatic change in the attitude towards adoption. Prior to 1960 people had prejudiced concept towards adoption. After 1960 people's tendency of searching for healthy white children for adoption ended due to various factor. The various factors responsible for the dramatic change are black civil right movement, women's movement and awareness through media campaign. Though there is change in peoples mind, childcare specialists still have problems. Traugot's essay ends with the activities childcare specialist have been doing for proper match of family and the needy child. Summary- MarshaTraugot begins her essay with the picture of Tammy, which has been published in a magazine with the hope that someone would be ready for her adoption. She is five and half years old with the face of Mona Lisa. The writer describes her inadaptable child had she been born before 1960. During that period only white healthy children were considered adaptable. Physically deformed children’s were rehired as damaged goods. No one was ready to adopt such children. This view, however, started disappearing after the sixties. People attitude towards them gradually became positive. The change in thoughts was brought by various factors. Traugot mentions black civil right movement, legalization of abortion, change in attitude of the people, and change in government's policy as responsible factors. Black civil rights movement brought sympathetic attitude towards black people. White people started regarding them as humans and treated accordingly. Another responsible factor was women's movement. Because of women’s movement they got right to decide on the matter of childbirth in addition to other right. The lady who had to do abortion to maintain her status could live with dignity with her child. No body showed her with index finger. It has the impact in reduction of unwanted children. The third factor responsible for change in attitude is government's policy towards adoption. The government used to emphasize on faster care before the seventies. As they became knowledgeable about the drawbacks, they made change in their policy. Rater than emphasizing on foster care, they tried to find permanent home. Another factor responsible is the role played by social activists. Their campaign brought not only in attitude of the people but also in their behavior. Though the situation in the present context is favorable, there are still problem in this sector. Activists have to get proper family for destitute child. They need to search suitable family for child. Unlike previous activists, they can't get two-parent family. Instead of searching for two-parent family, they need to evaluate the characteristic of a child and match it with the proper family. To overcome this problem, they hold meetings and discuss about the children and families where theycan put them.

4. A Child Is Born Germanie Greer

A child is born by Germaine Greer discusses on the matter of childbirth and childcare. She shows the differences in between the western society and the eastern society on the subject of the, pregnancy childcare and child rearing. She is of the opinion that the eastern society is better in comparison to western society. In the eastern society, the pregnant woman feels secure in pre-natal as well as post natal activities. This is hardly found in the western society.Summary:Childbirth management in the eastern society varies from place to place. the mother are familiar about the way of giving birth to child in such society because they are used to in such customs, they don't feel so much physical and mental tension while giving birth. The approach in eastern society is ritualistic. All the relatives including the husbands remain present during the process of giving birth. It decreases the pain of the mother. Their presence gives a sense of security to her. They create such an environment which make mother feels safe. Nevertheless a chance of death of mother is high in eastern society. In many of the eastern societies, a pregnant woman goes to her mother's house. For example: the writer presents us an example from society of India. In Repute society, the woman goes to mother's house prior to giving birth and after the birth to the child. She is taken care properly. The birth of the child is celebrated with singing and dancing. The pregnant woman is taken care not only by family members but also by the members of the community. It gives her a sense of security and she becomes less worried about giving birth. There is difference in child rearing also. In the eastern society the mother gets respect after she gives birth. She is called by the name of her first child. The newly born child is taken care by all the relatives. The mother has to spend less time in taking care of child. Thus, the eastern society is better than the western society in the matter of childbirth and childcare.
The eastern society, however is not unaffected by the method of western society. Because of modernization, people in the eastern societies are forced to use modern equipments. The modern equipments certainly have brought changes in the sector: nevertheless they are unable to reduce the anxiety at mother while giving birth. It has became problem in the western society. When a mother realize that there is unlikely to be anyone to celebrate her attempt, she is not certain to bear the problem
Section : D
Purgatory William Butter Yeats
W. B. Yeats "Purgatory" deals on the theme of crime and confession. He presents the predicament of a family; the family whose history is pathetic; present and future is also similar to the past. He shows the spirit suffering because of the wrong deeds of the past. Moreover, he depicts what a person does to relieve the soul from purgatory.
Summary:The boy and his father walk on the moonlight night; they are near a ruined house. Pointing towards the house, the old man describes the past of it. The house used to be occupied by his mother and her husband. The mother of the old man had married with the groom of the stable as soon as she met him. The man later turned out to be a drunkard and gambler. Due to drinking and gambling he emptied everything she had. The mother died during giving birth to him. The father continued his misdeed, which at last resulted into the complete destruction of house. Because of fear-the fear of his son becoming greater than him, he didn't send him to school. When he was sixteen, his father burnt down the house. This situation creates anger in the boy. As a result the old man got killed with a knife. The boy then became a peddler. The old man tells his bastard son that the night is the anniversary of mother's wedding. As he finishes telling his son about the past, a shadow appears to which the man can only see. A little later her husband also appears, and they both proceed towards room. The old man objects to the way they go inside. After the incident is over the boy talks about property he has acquired. The bastard son demands for his share in property of his father, which is denied by him. I arises anger in him. As a result he takes moneybag from his father. A quarrel starts between them; the boy gets killed at last with the knife of the old man. The old man, after it, addresses his mother and claims that he has ended the consequences. He hopes that the soul of mother would be purified.
Part: 4/ Heritage Series $ Compositon- GradeXII
Composition Writing
· Application letters
· Paragraph writing
· Free paragraphs writing
· Essay writings
Letters of Application for JobLetter of application is written when we need a job. The letters written for a job are formal and official but the letter of application for a job are difficult from those of other common official or formal letters. There are also more common features found in the official letters. The letters of application for a job mainly involves
the heading
the superscription,
the salutation,
the body,
the ending
the subscription
the signature of the applicant and
the enclosures.
In every application, we have to write about our education present and previous employment, i.e. experience and references. Nowadays C.V. is necessary while writing a letter of application.We have to maintain the following qualities of letters while writing the letter of application for a job;
1. Polite, readable, clear, correct and to paint the languages,
2. Normal length (not more a page)
3. No boastful proclamations and self-praising and
4. Sense of having self-confidence.
While writing the first sentences of the first paragraph, the following kinds of sentences are common ones:a. I am writing to apply for the position of section officer advertised…………
b. I wish to apply for the post of section officer in your office…
c. With reference to your advertisement published in the Rising Nepal, dated 10th June 2009, for the post of section…………
d. I wish to offer myself as a candidate for the post of section officer advertised in the rising Nepal………………………………………………..
e. I saw your advertisement in The ‘Republica’ stating that you are looking for a section officer for your company…………………………….
f. In response to your advertisement……………
g. I wish to offer myself as a candidate for the vacancy……….
h. Having seen your advertisement published………………..
i. I wish to offer my candidacy for the post of secretary advertised……..
The letters of application for a job having three paragraphs are regarded appropriate ones regarding the number of paragraph.
a. The first or introductory paragraph includes
· Why writing?
· Where and how information obtained? and
· The most important qualification of the applicant for the job(optional).
b. The second paragraph includes
· Academic qualification and experience and
· Determination / promise.
c. The last / three paragraph includes
· Formal ending
· Question about something not specified and
· Enclosures
But this is not a hard and fast rule. There can be more than three paragraphs while
writing an application.
Look at the following example:
Write an application for the post of ‘Lower Secondary Science Teacher’.
Kalimati, Kathmandu
15th Feb, 2010
The Principal,
Glorious International School,
Baneshwor, Kathmandu.
Sub: Application for a Lower Secondary level Science teacher.
With reference to your advertisement published in ‘The Republica’, dated 10th June 2009, I wish to apply for the post of Lower Secondary Science teacher. I would like to present the following particulars for your kind perusal and consideration.
I have been teaching as a lower secondary level Science teacher at P.S.B. School for two years since I completed by higher secondary in science from HSEB. As I am guided by the strong zeal to serve my native place, I am determined to serve your institute.
I would be grateful if you kindly provide the opportunity to offer my caliber experience, sincerity and devotion to your institute. My curriculum vitae, testimonials and other documents will tell you about me in detail.
I am looking forward to getting your favorable response as soon as possible.
Yours Faithfully
Anmol Sapkota
A. Write an application for the post of a shop assistant.
Samakhusi, Katmandu.
9th February , 2010.
The Proprietor
National Book Center
I am a Nepali citizen living at present in Katmandu. Through the advertisement published in The Katmandu Post on February 7, I came to know that your shop is in need of a shop assistant. As I posses require qualification I wish to apply for it.
My qualifications are as follows: I passed S.L.C. with distinction from boarding school in 2057. After S.L.C., I joined Swaraswati College and passed first year with first division. At present I am prepairing for the exam of second year.
I have go
good working knowledge about dealing with customers. A year before I had worked as a shop assistant in Bidhyarthi Pustak Bhandar. I have good command over English and Hindi. I can hand books and customers properly.
I look forward to hearing from you. If I am called for interview, I would be present with original certificates. I would try my best to satisfy the need of your shop and the demand of customers if I am selected.
Yours Faithfully
Binaj Sapkota
B. You are now living in one of the flats you visited, write a letter to a friend describing what it's like living there and what the people there are like.
Samakhusi, Kathmandu.
5th March, 2009
Dear friend,
It was a great pleasure to read your letter dated February 2003. I am grateful for the gift you sent and express my sincere thanks for the description of your locality. Your description really fascinated me.
The flat I visited is suitable for students. The location, environment and facilities properly match with any student's wish. The rooms have central heating system in addition to water and communication facilities. The building has only two stories, the second of which is occupied by the owner. As they seem peaceful, there is unlikely to be disturbance.
The flat is however quite far from college. So, it is likely to compel me to walk daily for nearly thirty minutes. The second drawback of the flat is there are shops away from it. I have to walk approximately seven minutes even to bring vegetables. Despite these shortcomings, I think the flat suitable for my purpose.
Hope that you get knowledgeable about my intended residence and colleagues. Please convey my Namaste to your parents and family. Expecting a letter soon from you, I wish to end.
With best wishes
Birat Sapkota
C. You've just joined a multi-national class in a summer school. The teacher asks you to introduce yourself to the other students, and to say something about yourself. What do you say?
It is a great pleasure to introduce myself among colleagues, who have come here with high aims. I would like to extend my thanks to our respected teacher. I am John Thapa from Katmandu. I did my school level in the year 2001 from Banasthali School, which is situated near Balaju Industrial State. At present I am waiting for the result of exam, which was held in last November. I am fond of playing football in addition to singing bongs and playing musical instruments. I prefer excursion during vacation. I wish to make friends who can truly be helpful in need. I hate people, who accompany to other only for personal benefits. Regarding culture and county, I am of the opinion that they should be in everyone's heart.
Thank you!
D. What thing in particular: impress you? Embarrass you? Terrify you? Fascinate you? Offend you? Amuse you? Write a paragraph.
The world is full of so many things hat they create different moods in me. I like numerous things extremely, but few things really upset me. People who speak several languages impress me very much. I like the way they can switch their tongue so easily. I find people who talk about themselves embarrassing, for them nothing is more important than themselves. I get terrified with unreliable people, as they desire to let other people down. I find optimistic people fascinating, for they never expect bad things to happen. People who smoke in restaurants offend me. I get amused with gullible people, as they believe whatever is said to them.
E. write paragraph describing each of the followings. a. beggars, b. nudist
Beggars really annoy me. They occupy any place they like, especially crowd places. It not only hinders the beauty of the city but also destroys the fame of the city. Police personals have to chase them time and again. This scene really disturbs any rational being. I find beggars irritating. They cling to the people and beg as if they are recently born puppies. Sometime they disturb tourists by begging. They defame Nepalese people’s identity. Moreover they terrify me. Every theme I see them I try to be away from them. Many of the beggars are involved in criminal activities. Some of them get involved in murder activities also. People use them in petty interests like smuggling. I object to the way they show they show their wonder fresh everyday. If there is any thing that I can’t stand it is people who prefer to beg instead of earning their livelihood by working.
NudistsNudists shock me very much, as they do not keep to social codes. Human beings are regarded as the most developed as they can live with the code established by the society codes is to put on clothes. As nudists do not think it necessary to put on clothes. I find them uncivilized. I think they are the beasts in human form. I find embarrassing. When walking with relatives their appearance compels me to hide my face. Fathers walking with their daughters should hide their face worth shame. I get terrified with nudists, as they are likely to create disorder in society. Their nakedness might result into the increment of sex violence in society. I object to the way they advocate about the benefits of being naked. I find their logic ridiculous. I don’t think that it does any benefit. If there is one thing that gets on my nerve it is people who can’t have behave themselves as human.
Topics For Further Practice :
Advantages/disadvantages of
· Television
· Studying in Foreign Country
· Cell phones( Mobiles)
· Advertisements
· Internet or Web
Other topics:
· Living in urban or rural area
· Peace Education
· Politicians
· Police Description about the robber that robbed in your or in your neighbors house
· Most interesting event in your college life/ in school life
· Most interesting event of your childhood
F. Develop the following into a paragraph describing your reaction.
a. I found that TV documentary very interesting.
That TV documentary really appealed me. I found the subject matter truly fascinating and I liked the way the director has treated the subject matter. He is successful in presenting the bitter reality of rustic people living in karnali region. The exploitation to poor people depicted in the bitter reality of rustic people living in karnali . the exploitation to poor people depicted in the documentary shocked me much. The anchor’s presentation impressed me. I found his voice properly matching with the demand of subject. The language used in the documentary was interesting. Photographer’s skill was very praiseworthy. The way he has used lights matches with the subject matter. His use of dark light for serious atmosphere and bright light for gay atmosphere is really interesting. But the thing I found most impressive is the way the documentary dared to present such important aspect of the people who are considered most backward. If there is any TV documentary that I have liked most it is none other than karnali ko serophero.
G. Write a paragraph describing a dental appointment that took longer than expected.
Appointments, especially clinical, are always tiresome and tedious. One has to wait beyond expectation to get a short advice. To avoid such a problem. I had enlisted my name two weeks before. I had expected that there would be no trouble in seeing dentist in time. I had been to clinic warily in the morning hopping to get appointment before eight, but as it happened I didn’t see any sign of doctor till eight. I had intended to have mine checked in time , but unfortunately my turn didn’t come till half eight. There were, according to receptionist thirty patients enlisted before mine. Truly speaking. It was eleven before I arrived to my home.
H. To what extent can you judge people’s characters from their faces? What other things can tell you what people’s characters are like ?
People’s character can be determined, to some extent, with some aspects of the person’s many people find it impossible thing to but I don’t suppose so. After observing a person’s facial appearance minutely, I can determine nature of the person. If the person’s if the person’s noise is crooked. Such person is egotistical. S\he has high opinion about him\her. other people’s for them are nothing in comparison to themselves. People with broad for head are generally thoughtful. They have the tendency of thinking seriously before they do any work. They like to get involved in the observation of natural beauty. They are intellectual. Quick thinking and imaginative, but wish to know excessively about others people’s activities. People having double chin are skeptical. They suspect on the character of others. Many of them are single minded and serious.
A long with appearance, other aspects like the way one talks. The way one walks can be helpful in knowing a person. People who put clothes carelessly never worry about what other think about them. Such people are interested only in merrymaking and enjoyment. Quite contrarily, people who always wear clean clothes are interested in showing their superiority. They have high opinion about themselves. Other aspect like talking also tells what a person is like. Nevertheless exception works in some cases.
Letter to the Editor1. Write a letter to a newspaper saying how you fell about the growing use of computer in our daily live.
Samakhusi, Katmandu
16th March, 2010
The Editor
The Kathmandu Times
I would be grateful if my article on the context of this modern changing world of innovation is published in your small column of newspaper. I hope millions of readers will advantage from this article.
The following is my view on the growing use of computer in our daily lives. Computer has become essential part of human life in the present world. Consequence, the users have been increasing day by day. Whether one is doing official or personal work, one prefers to use computer life, without computer, has become almost unimaginable. No doubt computer makes our task easier; it enables people to work efficiently and it prevents people from working in weather extremes. Undoubtedly it has made communication easer efficient and less time consuming. Nevertheless, computer do have reverse side too. Excess use of computer results into the loss of eyesight in the long run. Computer brings sex and violence in screen. Which result into the increment of sex violence. Teenagers utilize computer in such a way that their mind get corrupted mind crosses social norms and values. Eventually such deeds are sure to bring social disorder. Moreover it makes people lazy and unsocial as they wish to spend much of their time with computer.
Computers do have advantages as well as disadvantages. Surely, advantages that people can get greater than disadvantages. If people use computers wisely, they can reduce disadvantages.
Sincerely Yours
Birat Sapkota
2. Write a short article for a magazine entitled ‘keeping a dog in a flat’
Samakhusi, kathmandu
10th March, 2010.
The editor,
The Katmandu post
Anam Nagar
I have forwarded this article with the hope that it will be published in your magazine. Keeping a dog in a flat is very difficult job though numerous prefer to do it. One who desires for it at least should have knowledge of what, how and why. Otherwise, keeping a dog in a flat is a troublesome job.
The owner should have knowledge on what he has to do. The first essential task is to teach the puppy about the time and place of doing excretion in teaching. Training is however not all in all. A good owner should know the way to talking care of dog. Dogs usually like flesh, so they should be fed with meat. Dogs should be vaccinated against various disease. Otherwise they might cause rabies, which is very dangerous. Despite the fact that training and caring are time a member of difficult the it keeps our house safe from burglars and unwanted visitors. Hope that my article would be given a place.
Faithfully Yours
Anmol Sapkota
Topics For Further Practice :
a) Strike and Its impact
b) Non-practical Students
c) Peace in Education
d) Crime and Conflict
e) Human Rights
f) Political parties and the constitution
g) Crisis of security
h) Climate change
i) Computer education social evils in your society
( For further details look at the handouts-4 provided in the class)
Free composition Practice
1. Someone ask you ‘have you ever been hurt in a fight’? what do you say?
Truly speaking, I don’t like to get involved in fighting, for I am peace loving. Despite my nature, I had been hurt very badly during union’s election in college. It was the year 1999 and the time was 6pm. The election result had only been announced even a clash started between the winners and losers I was in the college premises just watching the events in surprise. Suddenly stones started flying from all the directions. In no time police arrived there and started ‘lathi charge’. I attempted hard to get out of the place but all went in vain. A police man charged ‘lathi’ at my back. Though I tired to convince that I was not involved, he charged for the second time. His behavior really irrigated me. In my anger, I caught his lathi and tired to seize. We struggled for sometime. At last, I could take it away from his hand. As I became successful in doing so, o charged the policeman with it. I think I charged for more than five times over his head. In my sixth attempt, I heart the sound of tear fast gullet blasting. I was really afraid of it. I threw the stick on the ground and tired to be away from there. But my attempt went in vain as I left a lathi hitting continuously over my head. In no time I lost my consciously over my head. In no time I lost my consciousness. When I was conscious, I was in hospital bed. Around me were my relatives watching at me. This is the only one time I have been hurt in a fight.
Essay Writing:
1. Essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer.
Great advancement in the field of science and technology has resulted into the invention of numerous devices, which have made our life easy and comfortable. Among the devices, which are widely used in the present time, is computer. Indeed computer has become basis need of modern people. There is a symbol of modernity. Despite this fact computer like other devices has pros and cons. Having computer certainly has disadvantages but there are some good aspects of it too. Computers are useful in business, in education and home. The use of computer has reduced time span of many works. Any works can be done sitting in a place and pressing few keys. It has enabled people to know happenings of the world shortly after it happens. Computer has made it easier for people to communicate in addition to saving time and money. Formerly, operating business used to be totally manual work. Because of payments to be made for workers, goods used to costly. The use of computer has surely reduced cost of goods. Moreover, a chance of miscalculation is very less if done with computer than with a human brain. The use of computer in education sector has brought changes in the age-old teaching materials. Way viability of materials allows teachers to use them for effective educating. As in business and education computer is useful at home. Leisure time of family members does not become burden. They can si at a place and spend time watching any movies they like. Computer puts a stop to writing letter, posting it and waiting for the reply.
Needless to say computer has numerous advantages. Nonetheless it has disadvantages too use of computer results into unemployment as computer can perform the duty that might need nearly six to seven workers. Unemployment is likely to result into crimes. Continuous work with computer causes loss of eyesight in the long run. Internet, which is widely used to see pornographic scenes, corrupts the mind of teenagers. Due to it, sex- violence increases rapidly. Computer has direct impact on culture of any nation. The eventual impact of computer in society is uncertain, but they are likely to cause total disorder in society.
Computer has disadvantages, but advantages are not less. Faults are not inherent: they are man made. As defects are man-made, they can be reduced and computer can be used for the benefits of human beings.
Some Topics for Further Practice:
1. Gender Education
2. Future Developments in World Population
3. Role of youths in Nation Building.
4. Nepal Tourism Year-2011
5. Nepal Tourism Year-2011: Prospects and Challenges
6. Multiple Intelligence
7. Peace Education
8. Practicality/ Practical Students
9. Economic Challenges in the World
10. Inter-Cultural Communication
11. Strike and Its impact in our Education
12. Environmental Pollution
13. Natural Disaster
14. Human Rights
15. Technical Education
16. Culture


Anonymous said...


RHEA said...


Anonymous said...

gr8 man

Nirmal said...

Model Answers
1. Write a paragraph or two to show how karnali is linked economically with the lowland regions to the south?
Geographically, karnali lies to the northern part of our kingdom. As it is made up of very sloppy hills, there are many problems. People do have transportation and other facilities for their better survival. There is no sufficient cultivable land. So, they have to depend on the lowland regions to the south.
People of karnali cannot sell their products in their localities. To sell their items like medicinal herbs. Hashish, had-knit sweaters and blankets, they have to go to Nepalgunj. Similary, they cannot buy goods in their places. For this purpose also, they have to depend upon lowland regions. People of Karnali have to depend upon lowland region for their jobs also. Being undeveloped part, it does not have factories. To earn livelihood, young people have no better options than leaving their places and working in the lowland region.

Anonymous said...

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Anonymous said...

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Anonymous said...

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r us
soo thanku very much

srijana and roji
Alliance Academy
New baneshwor,Ktm

Anonymous said...

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srijana and roji
Alliance Academy

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Drabya shah multiple campus

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Newari stha bishal(Bishal Shrestha) said...

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